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Yesterday β€” April 19th 2018Broadband TV News: Cable

Internet and telephony drive German cable

By JΓΆrn Krieger

German cable operators gained around 500,000 new internet customers last year and currently provide broadband internet access to a total of 7.7 million households.

This corresponds with an increase of 7% over the previous year, according to German cable operator association ANGA. High speeds are particularly in demand: Over 40% of cable internet customers opt for data rates between 100 and 400Mbps.

“With offers of several hundred Mbps and availability in 74% of households, cable operators will remain in the fast lane in the broadband internet market in 2018,” said ANGA President Thomas Braun. “The upcoming DOCSIS 3.1 cable standard will significantly increase the performance of cable networks towards Gigabit speeds.”

Cable operators are also reporting increasing demand for telephony. Compared with the previous year, another 400,000 households opted for a telephone connection via cable – an increase of 6%.

The number of cable TV households remained largely stable at 17.6 million.

Before yesterdayBroadband TV News: Cable

Com Hem subs reach record high

By Julian Clover

The number of individual subscribers to Com Hem’s cable service in Sweden climbed by 4,000 on the quarter to reach a record high of 987,000.

The operator continues to enjoy continued growth in broadband with another 7,000 RGUs added to a new high of 757,000.

Operating profit of SEK 222 million compares with 232 million in previous years.

However, it wasn’t all good news as Digital TV RGU’s declined by 1,000 to 653,000 following price increases, though TiVo customers increased by 3,000 (a penetration rate of 41%).

Price increases also impacted on churn at Com Hem’s DTT platform Boxer. Churn remains at 19.3% while it lost 7,000 more RGUs.

Com Hem’s own churn has increased to 14.8% from 13.6%, again related to price increases.

Telenet CEO John Porter confirms interest in VOO

By Robert Briel

Liberty Global’s Belgian operator Telenet would be prepared to pay EUR1,3 billion to acquire the Walloon telecommunications company VOO.

John Porter, CEO of Telenet, confirmed in an interview with newspaper L’Echo interest in acquiring VOO. However, VOO itself says that it is not for sale.

in addition to the EUR1.3 billion, Telenet would also invest EUR300 million in the telecom operator’s network. Telenet’s valuation does not include Brussels operator Brutele, which also uses the brand name VOO and is estimated to be worth around EUR300 million.

Furthermore, the company would set up an advisory council consisting of politicians. Telenet has only just dissolved its own advisory council following a scandal. In Wallonia, such a council should ensure that Walloon politicians have a say in the company’s direction.

VOO is currently owned by Brutélé and Nethys, who insist that the telecom operator is not for sale. Just recently, Orange Belgium also expressed an interest in a acquiring the Walloon operator.

With its valuation of EUR 1,3 billion, Porter would also have abandoned Brutélé’s Brussels network (which is estimated at an additional EUR 300 million).

If the takeover should not be successful, Porter is considering leasing the VOO network if necessary. VOO and Telenet have been working together for some time, and have concluded a cooperation contract again, whereby VOO buys mobile services from Telenet.

Elisa heads Estonian pay-TV market

By Chris Dziadul

Elisa assumed top spot in Estonia’s pay-TV market last summer and ended the year with 202,500 customers receiving its services.

Quoting data produced by the Technical Surveillance Authority, the company says that it was closely followed by Telia (197,300), with STV a distant third (87,000).

Elisa adds that it was also the leading provider of mobile services in Estonia as the Q4 2017, followed by Telia and STV.

Elisa secured top spot in the pay-TV sector following the end of FTA broadcasts by TV3 and Kanal2, the country’s two leading commercial broadcasters.

Elisa’s operations include the former Starman, the leading cable operator in Estonia, which it acquired in December 2016 in a deal worth €151 million.

eoTV joins Vodafone Deutschland’s cable network

By JΓΆrn Krieger

eoTV, the German free-to-air channel for European films and series, is now available on Vodafone Deutschland’s cable network and, via the GigaTV app, on smartphones and tablets.

“The distribution via Vodafone is an important step in expanding our technical reach. For us, this means an increase in reception through the Vodafone cable network in 13 German federal states and across Germany via the GigaTV app,” said eoTV’s Managing Director Jürgen Hörner.

The ad-supported channel which launched in December 2015 can be received via Astra (19.2° East), on cable networks and IPTV as well as through a live-stream on its website.

eoTV additionally broadcasts as a window each evening from 20.15 to 01.00 CET on the slots of German children’s and family channel RiC.

Com Hem selects 3SS for Android TV-based 4K TV platform

By JΓΆrn Krieger

Sweden’s largest cable operator Com Hem has chosen German multiscreen software company 3 Screen Solutions (3SS) to provide the custom launcher solution for its new Android TV 4K hybrid set-top-box.

The Com Hem TV Hub is the world’s first major Android N deployment based on Android TV operator tier with integrated Google TV services, according to 3SS.

Com Hem’s two separately branded services, Com Hem Play and Boxer, are able to provide their subscribers with separately branded Android TV Ultra HD (4K) user experiences by making use of the customisation capabilities of 3SS’ 3Ready solution. This includes, for example, different launchers, content configuration and user features.

Com Hem Play transmits via cable, IPTV and OTT while Boxer uses DTT and OTT. With a phased rollout, the set-top-box is deployed to serve Com Hem’s combined 1.4 million Swedish subscriber households.

The Com Hem TV hub contains live TV, catch-up, subscription and transactional video-on-demand services as well as content from partners including Netflix and Swedish broadcasters SVT and TV4.

3Ready also supports the rollout of future service enhancements including Ultra HD channels as they are added to the Com Hem’s service offerings.

“To be entrusted by Com Hem to deliver its new Android TV platform is a huge honour,” said Kai-Christian Borchers, Managing Director of 3SS. “The combination of innovations made possible by 3Ready and the many appealing features of today’s Android TV is a game-changer which we believe is enabling Com Hem to set a new benchmark in digital entertainment.”

Nethys insists VOO is not for sale

By Julian Clover

The company behind VOO insists the Flemish cablenet isn’t for sale.

In a statement, Nethys said that it took note of the expressions of interests that had been put forward by both Orange and Telenet and that the board of directors “once again unanimously expressed its position that VOO is not for sale”.

The statement was signed by chairman of the board Pierre Meyers and managing director Stéphane Moreau.

Earlier this month Orange put forward what it described as a “declaration of interest” in VOO. It follows an agreement that will see VOO offer its mobile service via the Telenet network from next year – an agreement that fuelled speculation about a rapprochement between Telenet and VOO.

VOO offers triple play services on the networks owned by Nethys and Brutélé in Wallonia and parts of Brussels, and is the equivalent of Telenet, who operates services in Flanders and others parts of Brussels. Orange Belgium has third-party access to the Telenet cable networks.

SRG Switzerland to show FIFA World Cup 2018 in Ultra HD

By JΓΆrn Krieger

Swiss public broadcaster SRG will transmit the FIFA Football World Cup 2018 on its channels live in Ultra HD. This was confirmed to Broadband TV News by an SRG spokesman.

As the first cooperation partner, SRG has won telecommunications group Swisscom which will show the games in ultra-high resolution on its IPTV platform Swisscom TV. For reception, customers require the Ultra HD-capable Swisscom TV box and a corresponding TV set.

Swisscom TV will broadcast all FIFA World Cup matches in Ultra HD which are shown by SRG’s channels SRF, RTS and RSI, the SRG spokesman explained. An exception is the group qualification phase: The last two matches of each of the eight groups take place simultaneously. Since these games will be covered by SRG’s channels in parallel, only one of the two games will be shown in Ultra HD. Thus, with the exception of eight games, all the other 64 FIFA World Cup games will be shown in the new video format on SRG’s channels.

According to the SRG spokesman, the broadcaster is currently in negotiations with other platform operators, both cable companies and IPTV providers, regarding the FIFA World Cup transmission in Ultra HD. He added, however, that SRG’s channels will not be offered in Ultra HD via satellite.

In Germany, rights owners ARD and ZDF are cooperating with Sky Deutschland: The pay-TV broadcaster will transmit 25 top matches of the FIFA World Cup in Ultra HD. The public broadcasters will show all 64 games in SD and HD resolution.

For the first time, international football association FIFA has commissioned the production of all World Cup matches in Ultra HD/HDR format this year.

Satellite remains leading TV reception infrastructure in Germany

By JΓΆrn Krieger

DTH satellite reception remains the most used TV reception method in Germany: Its reach rose by around 130,000 households to 17.72 million in 2017.

By contrast, cable television lost 180,000 households and decreased to 16.39 million. With a growth by 300,000 to 2.64 million households, IPTV recorded the strongest increase. At 1.83 million households, digital terrestrial television (DTT) remained at the previous year’s level.

This means that 45.9% of the 38.58 million German TV households opted for DTH satellite reception, 42.5% for cable, 6.8% for IPTV and 4.7% for DTT.

These are the results of the Astra TV-Monitor 2017 carried out annually by market research institute Kantar TNS on behalf of Astra Deutschland. The survey of a total of 6,000 households across Germany took place at the end of 2017. In the evaluation, the main reception device of the households was taken into account, usually the large TV set in the living room.

The number of HD households in Germany rose from 22.54 million to 27.48 million within one year. This means that 71% of all households watched television in HD quality in 2017. With 12.66 million households, DTH satellite is the leading HD reception infrastructure. Cable (10.86 million) and IPTV (2.52 million) follow in second and third place.

However: Of the 12.66 million HD satellite households, only 2.1 million have opted for for subscription platform HD+ on which the commercial free-to-air TV channels can be received in HD quality. There was no increase in paying HD+ customers in 2017 compared to 2016. The majority of HD satellite households seem to be satisfied with receiving commercial free-TV channels in SD quality free of charge.

However, the two new platforms Diveo from M7 Group and Freenet TV via satellite by Media Broadcast which also offer the commercial channels in HD quality on Astra could provide a boost.

Following the transition to the new DVB-T2 standard, DTT appears for the first time in HD distribution statistics with 1.44 million households.

Demand for Ultra HD continues to grow: 2.7 million UHD TV sets were sold in Germany in 2017, compared to less than 2 million a year earlier, according to German industry association gfu. By the end of 2017, a total of almost 6 million UHD devices had been sold in Germany.

The Astra TV-Monitor 2017 can be downloaded from the Astra Deutschland website as a PDF document.

Delta and Caiway move to new HQ

By Robert Briel

Dutch cabler Delta will relocate some of its employees to a new central office in Schiedam, where it will join Caiway.

The move follows the acquisition of the two cable companies by Swedish investment company EQT.

Caiway and Delta will have an office in Schiedam as of September. Caiway said that it had long been looking for an office where it could accommodate its 300 or so employees. The company currently operates from several locations in Naaldwijk and Rotterdam. As from September, the company will gradually close down its current offices.

Some 60 out of 450 Delta employees will be working from the new joint office location in Schiedam. The new location offers sufficient scope to build on the growth strategy together. This strategy is emphasised in the ambition to grow by offering fast internet, especially in areas where it is not yet available, such as rural regions.

Delta emphasises that it will remain a Zeeland company and that it will expand its services within the province. The company is further expanding its customer service in Middelburg with additional people and will be opening three stores in Goes, Middelburg and Terneuzen this summer.

Delta has been taking steps in its network and services for some time now. Over the past few months, the company has announced the Next Generation Network project, in which it intends to provide services of up to 1 Gbps in the long run.

It will also start to switch off analogue and provide telecom services outside the provincial borders. It has expanded the range of TV services to include interactive TV, and it is going to work on broadband in the outlying areas of the province.

Russian cable consolidation continues

By Chris Dziadul

The Russian cable operator ER Telecom has acquired Bryansk Cable Networks (BKS) for an undisclosed fee.

Quoting TMT Consulting, Telecom Daily reports that BKS is the leading provider of broadband services in Bryansk, a city located to the south west of Moscow, with a market share of 30%. This translates into around 40,000 private subscribers, and once ER Telecom’s 23,000 in Bryansk are added to the total the share will increase to 48%.

BCS was founded in 2002 and provides triple-play services. Its offer includes a digital TV package that consists of 110 channels, three of which are in HD and one in 3D. Additional packages include one that features the channel Insight UHD.

ER Telecom is one of the fastest growing cable operators in Russia and the market leader in St Petersburg.

Sky Deutschland to show FIFA World Cup 2018 in Ultra HD

By JΓΆrn Krieger

Sky Deutschland has secured the exclusive Ultra HD broadcast rights to 25 matches of the 2018 FIFA Football World Cup in Russia.

The agreement with SportA, the sports rights agency of German public broadcasters ARD and ZDF, grants the pay-TV operator the right to show the Match of the Day live in UHD on all tournament days. Financial details of the sublicensing deal were not disclosed.

The Sky Sport UHD offer is available to all Sky subscribers in Germany who use the Sky+ Pro receiver and have an Ultra HD TV set.

In addition to the opening match on June 14, 2018, the live coverage will include all games of the German national team and other selected matches including two quarter-finals, both semi-finals, the match for third place and the final on July 15, 2018.

“With the first and exclusive broadcast of the FIFA World Cup 2018 in Ultra HD, Sky Deutschland underscores its role as a pioneer and innovation driver in German television,” said Dr Holger Enßlin, Managing Director Legal, Regulatory & Distribution at Sky Deutschland. “As it was the case in 2006 with the first transmission of a World Cup in HD, Sky customers will again be the first to enjoy the latest technology and an unprecedented viewing experience. The Ultra HD broadcast of 25 matches from Russia is another milestone for the distribution of Ultra HD in Germany.”

The transmissions of the FIFA World Cup 2018 in Ultra HD will be available to all Sky customers in Germany using the Sky+ Pro receiver, independent of the subscription packages they signed up for. The broadcasts on Sky Sport UHD can be received via satellite on Astra (19.2° East) and by almost all Sky cable customers.

ARD and ZDF, the owners of the broadcasting rights for all 64 FIFA World Cup 2018 matches, will show all games live in SD and HD resolution.

In October 2017, world football association FIFA announced that all 64 matches of the 2018 World Cup will be produced in Ultra HD/HDR format for the first time.

Since October 2016 Sky has been showing football matches from the Bundesliga and the UEFA Champions League in Ultra HD resolution on its sports channels Sky Sport UHD and Sky Sport Bundesliga UHD.

Orange confirms interest in Belgian VOO

By Robert Briel

Orange Belgium has confirmed local press reports that it is interested in acquiring the VOO cable platform, owned by Liege-based Nethys and Brutélé in Brussels.

At this stage, Orange says it is only a “declaration of interest”. The timing of Orange’s interest is interesting, because recently there was a deal between Nethys and Telenet. In that agreement VOO offers its mobile service from next year via Telenet’s network. This agreement fuelled speculation about a rapprochement between Telenet and VOO.

Orange Belgium advocates an “industrial partnership” with Nethys and Brutélé, the two companies operating the networks marketed under the Voo brand on behalf of Belgian municipalities. Such a merger could lead to the creation of a convergent national telecoms operator with strong roots in Wallonia and Brussels”, explains Orange Belgium.

VOO offers triple play services on the networks owned by Nethys and Brutélé in Wallonia and parts of Brussels, and is the equivalent of Telenet, who operates services in Flanders and others parts of Brussels. Orange Belgium has third-party access to the Telenet cable networks.

At the moment, the Belgian market is carved up between three players, Telenet in Flanders, VOO in Wallonia and Proximus, the former incumbent Belgacom, as a national player, competing with both cable operators.

ARD/ZDF end cable dispute and pay carriage fees

By JΓΆrn Krieger

ARD and the two major cable operators Vodafone Deutschland (formerly Kabel Deutschland) and Unitymedia have settled their dispute over carriage fees for the cable distribution of the public broadcaster’s channels. ZDF reached an agreement with Vodafone, but not with Unitymedia.

Under the terms of the agreements, the parties entered into new, long-standing partnerships for cable distribution which include the carriage of additional HD channels and the content from the public broadcasters’ catch-up portals. ARD and ZDF pay carriage fees for the cable distribution of their regular, linear channels as part of the agreements with the company, as a Vodafone spokeswoman confirmed to Broadband TV News.

The legal dispute that has been running since 1992 dealt with the controversial question of whether ARD and ZDF as the holders of ‘must carry’ status require a cable distribution contract and have to pay the cable operators a carriage fee. In 2011, ARD and ZDF terminated their carriage contracts with the major cable operators and suspended payments. It is no longer justifiable that fees are paid to companies that earn good money from the distribution of the public channels, ZDF’s general director Dr Thomas Bellut argued at the time. However, ARD and ZDF recently suffered a setback in the dispute: In July 2017, the Düsseldorf Higher Regional Court ruled that the broadcasters were obliged to pay carriage fees.

According to the agreement between Vodafone and ARD, the cable operator will shortly commence carriage of the channels ARD-alpha HD, Tagessschau24 HD, One HD and SR Fernsehen HD. With ZDF, Vodafone has agreed that ZDFinfo HD will soon be added to the line-up. In addition to the offers accessible via HbbTV (Red Button), Vodafone’s entertainment platform GigaTV will also soon make many programmes from the catch-up portals of ARD and ZDF available to customers directly after their TV broadcast on the set-top box, smartphone or tablet.

According to Hannes Ametsreiter, CEO of Vodafone Deutschland, the new partnerships with ARD and ZDF are a big step forward: “Together we are concentrating on offering viewers a unique television experience with high-quality TV offerings that can be accessed anytime and anywhere – with more TV variety and convenience through even more HD quality, catch-up portals and numerous new digital features on GigaTV.”

The agreement between Unitymedia and ARD enables Unitymedia’s TV customers to be able to receive the entire TV and radio offering of ARD’s affiliate broadcasters from April 24, 2018. For this purpose, six new TV channels will be added to the cable line-up: RBB Fernsehen Berlin HD, SR Fernsehen SD and HD, MDR Fernsehen Thüringen HD, tagesschau24 HD and Radio Bremen TV. New to the radio offer are NDR Blue, NDR Plus, Antenne Saar, Unser Ding SR, WDR2 Ruhrgebiet, WDR2 Rhein & Ruhr, BR Heimat and Bremen Next. In addition, ARD’s catch-up portal and the Tagesschau and KiKa app will soon be available via Unitymedia’s TV and multimedia platform Horizon. Viewers will soon also be able to use non-linear functions such as Replay and Instant Restart through Horizon.

“It is our aim to provide our customers with the best content – whether classic, on demand, time-shifted or via app – on our TV platform Horizon. This undoubtedly includes the extensive range of services offered by ARD. We are very pleased with the long-term agreement we have reached,” said Lutz Schüler, CEO of Unitymedia.

A Unitymedia spokesperson confirmed to Broadband TV News that ARD’s affiliate broadcasters pay a fee under the agreement “within the overall context of the comprehensive and long-term cooperation.”

However, there is still no contractual agreement between Unitymedia and ZDF, which is why the pending legal cases between both sides will continue, according to the spokesman. “We hope that the agreement with ARD has shown a mutually viable path for both sides that will provide orientation in the outstanding negotiations.”

Multimedia Polska secures funding

By Chris Dziadul

The Polish cable operator Multimedia Polska has secured a loan of PLN1.515 billion (€358.9 million) from Credit Agricole CIB and Credit Agricole Bank Polska.

In a stock market release it says the funds will be used to fully pay off the debts of the company and its shareholders, alongside PLN30 million being allocated as a working capital loan for financing the company’s current needs.

The repayment date for the loan from Credit Agricole has been fixed at six years.

As previously reported by Broadband TV News, late last month UPC dropped its offer to buy Multimedia Polska following a ruling by the country’s Competition Council (UOKiK).

Orange targets Romania’s AKTA

By Chris Dziadul

Orange is in talks to buy AKTA, one of the largest cable operators in Romania.

Quoting several sources in the communications industry who wish to remain anonymous, ZF reports that the deal could be worth €150-200 million and completed by the end of this year.

It adds that the talks have been given impetus by the possible acquisition of UPC Romania by Vodafone.

At the same time, UPC Romania is also one of several other players that have held talks with AKTA, though Orange is understood to be the keenest on acquiring the cable operator. Should it do so, it would gain a fixed-line network providing TV, internet and telephony services to a combined total of around 700,000 subscribers.

AKTA, which encompasses the companies Digital Cable Systems (DCS) and AKTA Telekom, is also an MVNO, providing mobile services over Telekom Romania’s infrastructure. Although Orange is a key player in Romania’s electronic communications industry, it does not as yet have a fixed-line network.

AKTA is currently majority owned by the investment fund Pinebridge. As previously reported by Broadband TV News, Pinebridge has been interested in finding a buyer for AKTA for some time, and both UPC and Vodafone have previously expressed an interest.

Polish cable raises HBO Go concerns

By Chris Dziadul

Polish cable operators have expressed concerns about HBO Go having been made available as a standalone service to all viewers in the country.

Quoted by Wirtualne Media, Jerzy Straszewski, the president of the Polish Chamber of Electronic Communications (PIKE), said that rather than fight Netflix or HBO, cable operators should stay ahead of the competition by immediately offering the services in a package. However, added that HBO’s move should have been expected and it had effectively destroyed the order in the market that had existed for over 20 years.

Meanwhile, Tomasz Zuranski, the chairman of the board at Vectra, Poland’s second largest cable operator, was keen to emphasise the additional features Vectra offers to its customers. These include the use of the HBO OD library, which is comparable to the content in HBO Go.

So, too, was Bartlomiej Kasinski, the director of strategy and development at Multimedia.

On the other hand, Michal Bartowiak, a member of the board at Inea, said that any move by HBO on the internet would ultimately support the Inea’s business.

Wirtualne Media says this comes against the backdrop of the findings of a study by SW Research, undertaken in late Febrary, that show that up to one million internet users in Poland would opt for HBO Go if it became available as a standalone service.

As previously reported by Broadband TV News, Poland became the latest market in Europe where this was the case in late March.

Tele Columbus turns HL komm into PΕΈUR

By JΓΆrn Krieger

German cable operator Tele Columbus is now also renaming its business customer subsidiary HL komm into PŸUR.

The company specialises in internet access for B2B customers and digital business solutions. They complement the services for private customers which are available to around 3.6 million connected households nationwide.

HL komm’s previous brand presence will now be replaced by the PŸUR brand which was introduced for the private customer offerings of the Tele Columbus subsidiaries in autumn 2017.

At the same time, geographical coverage is expanded: Beyond the former core area of Leipzig and Eastern Germany, business solutions are now offered in all regions in which PŸUR operates its fibre-optic networks throughout Germany.

The fibre-optic network with national backbone enables bandwidths of 100Gbps and more.

Serbia Broadband under investigation

By Chris Dziadul

Serbia’s Commission for Protection of Competition (KZK) has officially launched an investigation into Serbia Broadband – Serbian Cable Network Belgrade (SBB).

In a statement, the KZK says it wants to determine if SBB abused its dominant market position, within the meaning of the Law on Protection of Competition.

Specifically, SBB increased its monthly maintenance fee to RSD1,395 (€11.72) at the beginning of this year.

One of the conditions the KZK imposed in approving SBB’s take-over of the cable operator Ikom in March 2017 was that SBB would provide it with a report within 15 days listing the reasons for changing its fees. As SBB failed to provide sufficient evidence to justify the increase, the KZK has decided to initiate the investigation.

As previously reported by Broadband TV News, the possibility of an investigation into the price increase was first mooted in January.

Bombshell as UPC drops Multimedia Polska bid

By Chris Dziadul

Liberty Global’s UPC Polska has decided to withdraw its application to take over Multimedia Polska, Poland’s third largest cable operator.

As previously reported by Broadband TV News, the all-cash acquisition, which valued Multimedia at PLN3 billion (approximately $760 million), was first announced in October 2016. At that time, it was expected to close within 12 months, subject to regulatory approval.

However, Poland’s Office of Competition and Consumer Protection (UOKiK) raised competition concerns in November 2017, following the end of this 12-month period and after it had undertaken an analysis that proved the concentration could result in a significant restriction of competition in pay-TV and fixed-line services in 11 Polish cities.

Indeed, the UOKiK found that a combined UPC/Multimedia operation would have accounted for a market share of over 40% in each of the cities, and in some instances up to 80%.

The UOKiK said that having presented the results of its analysis to UPC the cable operator proposed several modifications to the transaction. However, none would have prevented the negative effects of the concentration.

In a statement, UPC Polska said: “We have withdrawn from the purchase of Multimedia Polska after we failed to reach an understanding with the sellers regarding the revised commercial terms of the transaction that would take into account the current regulatory and market conditions. We remain confident about the business prospects of our operations in Poland and we will take into account other opportunities for consolidation”.

Broadband TV News notes that it was expected the deal would have been approved following the imposition of a number of conditions by the UOKiK, as had been the case when UPC acquired Aster, then Poland’s fourth largest cable operator, in 2012.

It remains to be seen how Multimedia reacts to UPC’s withdrawal. In anticipation of its acquisition, it has already sold off its insurance and utility businesses as they were of no interest to UPC.